Kong, Taiwan, and either China as a whole or just its Special Economic Zones. A number or symbol multiplied by a variable, usually written as preceding that variable. Contrasts with capital loss. Capital intensity A measure of the relative use of capital, compared to other factors such as labor, in a production process. This is known to raise welfare if all goods are net substitutes. Complementary exporting The export of one firm's products through the distribution channels of another firm.
Cobb-Douglas function A popular functional form for production and utility functions. Coordinating Committee for Multilateral Export Controls A cooperative arrangement among a group of countries in the West intending to prohibit exports of strategic products to countries of the Eastern Bloc. See also one-way arbitrage. Continuum-of-goods model A class of trade models in which goods are indexed by a continuous variable, approximating the case of very large numbers of goods. (Current definition) Since sometime in the 1990s, "capital account" refers to a minor component of international transactions, involving unilateral transfers of ownership of property. Cecchini Report A 1988 report by a group of experts, chaired by Paolo Cecchini, examining the benefits and costs of creating a single market in Europe, in accordance with provisions of the Treaty of Rome. Vogel (1995), who recalled California repeatedly raising environmental standards to be followed by other states and the nation. It largely disintegrated in the 1970s and 80s due to military conflicts, but reformed as the Central American Free Trade Zone (but without Costa Rica) starting in 1993. Equivalent to an FTA plus a common external tariff. Capital infusion An increase in financial capital provided to a bank, corporation, or other entity from outside. Efforts by multiple countries to influence exchange rates to their own perceived advantage, at the expense of others.